Author Archives: yenchaohsu

Dynamics of Nanocomposite Hydrogel Alignment during 3D Printing to Develop Tissue Engineering Technology

李明家副教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Biomacromolecules
連結網址:https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.biomac.3c00522
Abstract
Taking inspiration from spider silk protein spinning, we developed a method to
produce tough filaments using extrusion-based 3D bioprinting and salting-out of the
protein. To enhance both stiffness and ductility, we have designed a blend of partially
crystalline, thermally sensitive natural polymer gelatin and viscoelastic G-polymer
networks, mimicking the components of spider silk. Additionally, we have
incorporated inorganic nanoparticles as a rheological modifier to fine-tune the 3D
printing properties. This self-healing nanocomposite hydrogel exhibits exceptional
mechanical properties, biocompatibility, shear thinning behavior, and a well-
controlled gelation mechanism for 3D printing.

Molecular insight into the specific enzymatic properties of TREX1 revealing the diverse functions in processing RNA and DNA/RNA hybrids

蕭育源教授及朱智瑋教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Nucleic Acids Res

連結網址:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37870446/

Abstract

In various autoimmune diseases, dysfunctional TREX1 (Three prime Repair Exonuclease 1) leads to accumulation of endogenous single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and DNA/RNA hybrids in the cytoplasm and triggers immune activation through the cGAS-STING pathway. Although inhibition of TREX1 could be a useful strategy for cancer immunotherapy, profiling cellular functions in terms of its potential substrates is a key step. Particularly important is the functionality of processing DNA/RNA hybrids and RNA substrates. The exonuclease activity measurements conducted here establish that TREX1 can digest both ssRNA and DNA/RNA hybrids but not dsRNA. The newly solved structures of TREX1-RNA product and TREX1-nucleotide complexes show that 2′-OH does not impose steric hindrance or specific interactions for the recognition of RNA. Through all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we illustrate that the 2′-OH-mediated intra-chain hydrogen bonding in RNA would affect the binding with TREX1 and thereby reduce the exonuclease activity. This notion of higher conformational rigidity in RNA leading TREX1 to exhibit weaker catalytic cleavage is further validated by the binding affinity measurements with various synthetic DNA-RNA junctions. The results of this work thus provide new insights into the mechanism by which TREX1 processes RNA and DNA/RNA hybrids and contribute to the molecular-level understanding of the complex cellular functions of TREX1 as an exonuclease.

Oxygen-loaded microbubble-mediated sonoperfusion and oxygenation for neuroprotection after ischemic stroke reperfusion

何奕儒助理教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Biomater Res.

連結網址:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10324216/

 

Abstract

Background: Ischemic stroke-reperfusion (S/R) injury is a crucial issue in the protection of brain function after thrombolysis. The vasodilation induced by ultrasound (US)-stimulated microbubble cavitation has been applied to reduce S/R injury through sonoperfusion. The present study uses oxygen-loaded microbubbles (OMBs) with US stimulation to provide sonoperfusion and local oxygen therapy for the reduction of brain infarct size and neuroprotection after S/R.

Methods: The murine S/R model was established by photodynamic thrombosis and thrombolysis at the remote branch of the anterior cerebral artery. In vivo blood flow, partial oxygen pressure (pO2), and brain infarct staining were examined to analyze the validity of the animal model and OMB treatment results. The animal behaviors and measurement of the brain infarct area were used to evaluate long-term recovery of brain function.

 

Results: The percentage of blood flow was 45 ± 3%, 70 ± 3%, and 86 ± 2% after 60 min stroke, 20 min reperfusion, and 10 min OMB treatment, respectively, demonstrating sonoperfusion, and the corresponding pO2 level was 60 ± 1%, 76 ± 2%, and 79 ± 4%, showing reoxygenation. After 14 days of treatment, a 87 ± 3% reduction in brain infarction and recovery of limb coordination were observed in S/R mice. The expression of NF-κB, HIF-1α, IL-1β, and MMP-9 was inhibited and that of eNOS, BDNF, Bcl2, and IL-10 was enhanced, indicating activation of anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis responses and neuroprotection. Our study demonstrated that OMB treatment combines the beneficial effects of sonoperfusion and local oxygen therapy to reduce brain infarction and activate neuroprotection to prevent S/R injury.

OPRM1 A118G polymorphism modulating motor pathway for pain adaptability in women with primary dysmenorrhea

謝仁俊教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Frontiers in Neuroscience

連結網址:https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2023.1179851/full

Introduction: Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) is a common condition among women of reproductive age, characterized by menstrual pain in the absence of any organic causes. Previous research has established a link between the A118G polymorphism in the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene and pain experience in PDM. Specifically, carriers of the G allele have been found to exhibit maladaptive functional connectivity between the descending pain modulatory system and the motor system in young women with PDM. This study aims to explore the potential relationship between the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and changes in white matter in young women with PDM.

Methods: The study enrolled 43 individuals with PDM, including 13 AA homozygotes and 30 G allele carriers. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were performed during both the menstrual and peri-ovulatory phases, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography were used to explore variations in white matter microstructure related to the OPRM1 A118G polymorphism. The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to access participants’ pain experience during the MEN phase.

Results: Two-way ANOVA on TBSS analysis revealed a significant main effect of genotype, with no phase effect or phase-gene interaction detected. Planned contrast analysis showed that during the menstrual phase, G allele carriers had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and lower radial diffusivity in the corpus callosum and the left corona radiata compared to AA homozygotes. Tractographic analysis indicated the involvement of the left internal capsule, left corticospinal tract, and bilateral medial motor cortex. Additionally, the mean FA of the corpus callosum and the corona radiata was negatively correlated with MPQ scales in AA homozygotes, but this correlation was not observed in G allele carriers. No significant genotype difference was found during the pain-free peri-ovulary phase.

Discussion: OPRM1 A118G polymorphism may influence the connection between structural integrity and dysmenorrheic pain, where the G allele could impede the pain-regulating effects of the A allele. These novel findings shed light on the underlying mechanisms of both adaptive and maladaptive structural neuroplasticity in PDM, depending on the specific OPRM1 polymorphism.

A Low-Cost Fertilizer Medium Supplemented with Urea for the Lutein Production of Chlorella sp. and the Ability of the Lutein to Protect Cells against Blue Light Irradiation

林志生教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Bioengineering

連結網址:https://www.mdpi.com/2306-5354/10/5/594

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the use of organic fertilizers instead of modified f/2 medium for Chlorella sp. cultivation, and the extracted lutein of the microalga to protect mammal cells against blue-light irradiation. The biomass productivity and lutein content of Chlorella sp. cultured in 20 g/L fertilizer medium for 6 days were 1.04 g/L/d and 4.41 mg/g, respectively. These values are approximately 1.3- and 1.4-fold higher than those achieved with the modified f/2 medium, respectively. The cost of medium per gram of microalgal biomass reduced by about 97%. The microalgal lutein content was further increased to 6.03 mg/g in 20 g/L fertilizer medium when supplemented with 20 mM urea, and the cost of medium per gram lutein reduced by about 96%. When doses of ≥1 μM microalgal lutein were used to protect mammal NIH/3T3 cells, there was a significant reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells in the following blue-light irradiation treatments. The results show that microalgal lutein produced by fertilizers with urea supplements has the potential to develop anti-blue-light oxidation products and reduce the economic challenges of microalgal biomass applied to carbon biofixation and biofuel production.

DDX3 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma progression through modulating the secretion and composition of exosome

麥如村助理教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Am J Cancer Res

連結網址:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37293175/

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the use of organic fertilizers instead of modified f/2 medium for Chlorella sp. cultivation, and the extracted lutein of the microalga to protect mammal cells against blue-light irradiation. The biomass productivity and lutein content of Chlorella sp. cultured in 20 g/L fertilizer medium for 6 days were 1.04 g/L/d and 4.41 mg/g, respectively. These values are approximately 1.3- and 1.4-fold higher than those achieved with the modified f/2 medium, respectively. The cost of medium per gram of microalgal biomass reduced by about 97%. The microalgal lutein content was further increased to 6.03 mg/g in 20 g/L fertilizer medium when supplemented with 20 mM urea, and the cost of medium per gram lutein reduced by about 96%. When doses of ≥1 μM microalgal lutein were used to protect mammal NIH/3T3 cells, there was a significant reduction in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells in the following blue-light irradiation treatments. The results show that microalgal lutein produced by fertilizers with urea supplements has the potential to develop anti-blue-light oxidation products and reduce the economic challenges of microalgal biomass applied to carbon biofixation and biofuel production.

Holistic similarity-based prediction of phosphorylation sites for understudied kinases

李宗夷教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Briefings in Bioinformatics

連結網址:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36810579/

Abstract

Phosphorylation is an essential mechanism for regulating protein activities. Determining kinase-specific phosphorylation sites by experiments involves time- consuming and expensive analyzes. Although several studies proposed computational methods to model kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, they typically required abundant experimentally verified phosphorylation sites to yield reliable predictions. Nevertheless, the number of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites for most kinases is relatively small, and the targeting phosphorylation sites are still unidentified for some kinases. In fact, there is little research related to these understudied kinases in the literature. Thus, this study aims to create predictive models for these understudied kinases. A kinase-kinase similarity network was generated by merging
the sequence-, functional-, protein-domain- and ‘STRING’-related similarities. Thus, besides sequence data, protein-protein interactions and functional pathways were also considered to aid predictive modelling. This similarity network was then integrated with a classification of kinase groups to yield highly similar kinases to a specific understudied type of kinase. Their experimentally verified phosphorylation sites were leveraged as positive sites to train predictive models. The experimentally verified phosphorylation sites of the understudied kinase were used for validation. Results demonstrate that 82 out of 116 understudied kinases were predicted with adequate performance via the proposed modelling strategy, achieving a balanced accuracy of 0.81, 0.78, 0.84, 0.84, 0.85, 0.82, 0.90, 0.82 and 0.85, for the ‘TK’, ‘Other’, ‘STE’, ‘CAMK’, ‘TKL’, ‘CMGC’, ‘AGC’, ‘CK1’ and ‘Atypical’ groups, respectively. Therefore, this study demonstrates that web-like predictive networks can reliably capture the underlying patterns in such understudied kinases by harnessing relevant sources of similarities to predict their specific phosphorylation sites.

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