Dynamics of Nanocomposite Hydrogel Alignment during 3D Printing to Develop Tissue Engineering Technology

Taking inspiration from spider silk protein spinning, we developed a method to
produce tough filaments using extrusion-based 3D bioprinting and salting-out of the
protein. To enhance both stiffness and ductility, we have designed a blend of partially
crystalline, thermally sensitive natural polymer gelatin and viscoelastic G-polymer
networks, mimicking the components of spider silk. Additionally, we have
incorporated inorganic nanoparticles as a rheological modifier to fine-tune the 3D
printing properties. This self-healing nanocomposite hydrogel exhibits exceptional
mechanical properties, biocompatibility, shear thinning behavior, and a well-
controlled gelation mechanism for 3D printing.