Subdomain dynamics enable chemical chain reactions in non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

朱智瑋教授研究團隊發表研究成果於Nature Chemistry



Many peptide-derived natural products are produced by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in an assembly-line fashion. Each amino acid is coupled to a designated peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) through two distinct reactions catalysed sequentially by the single active site of the adenylation domain (A-domain). Accumulating evidence suggests that large-amplitude structural changes occur in different NRPS states; yet how these molecular machines orchestrate such biochemical sequences has remained elusive. Here, using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, we show that the A-domain of gramicidin S synthetase I adopts structurally extended and functionally obligatory conformations for alternating between adenylation and thioester-formation structures during enzymatic cycles. Complementary biochemical, computational and small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal interconversion among these three conformations as intrinsic and hierarchical where intra-A-domain organizations propagate to remodel inter-A–PCP didomain configurations during catalysis. The tight kinetic coupling between structural transitions and enzymatic transformations is quantified, and how the gramicidin S synthetase I A-domain utilizes its inherent conformational dynamics to drive directional biosynthesis with a flexibly linked PCP domain is revealed.